After 19 months of violent conflict in Syria a feasible solution seems farther removed than ever. The influx of fundamentalist Salafist or Wahabist fighters which have been streaming to Syria since the failure of two major Free Syrian Army assaults on Aleppo in June and July 2012 made it increasingly difficult to build a coherent and credible Syrian political and military opposition among the proponents of regime-change. The international anti Syrian alliance has difficulties in identifying a political or military opposition that could be used as an argument for regime change. The Turkish-Syrian conflict risks to spiral out of control with potentially catastrophic consequences for Syria, Turkey, Lebanon and the region. After the violence has begun spreading into Turkey and Lebanon, increasing the risk of a regional war with potentially global bearing, the containment of the crisis is becoming increasingly difficult. The international community is as divided as the Syrian opposition. The pressure is on all sides to resolve the crisis. Opinions about how to solve the crisis differ widely. The article offers the necessary analysis, suggests possible solutions and the potential consequences of a protracted and widening conflict.
The Political and Military Spectrum of the Syria Discourse.
The primary precondition for resolving the crisis in Syria implicit its national, international and regional dynamics is the understanding of the constituents of the political and military discourse. That is, the current Syrian government and a peaceful domestic political opposition, the predominantly foreign backed political and militant opposition, the international backers of the pro-regime-change opposition, the United Nations, the Arab League, and the dynamics of their interplay with one another.
The National Council of Syria. (NCS)
The NCS was constituted by several hundred Syrian nationals who predominantly belong to the Syrian expatriate community. Due to claims of anonymous members its actual strength could never be verified. The NCS was formed in Ankara, Turkey, with the support of the Turkish AKP government of Prime Minister R. Tayyip Erdogan.
An investigation into the background of the known members published in an article that was written shortly after the NCS was constituted in 2011 indicated a strong foreign influence. According to this investigation the majority of the NCS´s founding members had close ties to the National Endowment for Democracy, Reagan Fascell Fellowships, and other organizations that indicated a strong influence of US American intelligence services and political lobbies with ties to Henry Kissinger and Associates and the security adviser to several US Administrations, Zbigniev Brzezinski.
The NCS intended to constitute itself as representative for all opposition movements, including Muslim Brothers, Kurdish factions, the secular left and right, intellectuals and dissidents. Already during the official constitution in Ankara in 2011 it was plagued by strong ideological divisions. Even though, on the day it was constituted it demanded to be recognized as the sole representative of the people of the Syrian Arab Republic and as government de jure. It is today almost exclusively representative of the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood. According to evaluations by the Danish Middle East Specialist Erik Mohn, the NCS has lost most of its support from Turkey´s AKP government and other western governments who began focusing their support on the Free Syrian Army (FSA) after the NCS failed to constitute itself as the political leadership of the armed opposition and as an organization that could represent a united political opposition. The influence and the activity level of the NCS are today very low. The latest blog entry on its official website dates back to 9. Maj 2012.
The Revolutionary Council of Syria (RCS)
The Revolutionary Council of Syria, RCS, is an offshoot of the National Council of Syria NCS. The RCS was constituted in August 2012 in Egypt and it is led by its founder, the Syrian dissident Haitham al Maleh. Al Maleh claimed to have seventy high profile members of the opposition against the Baath Party Government of President Bashar Al-Assad behind him, but these claims have not been substantiated.
The RCS is by many perceived as a symptom of a lack of convergence between the interests of Turkey´s AKP government of P.M. R. Tayyip Erdogan and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood led government of Egypt´s President Mursi. While RCS leader al-Maleh is making claims that he is working pragmatically and on the basis, he is based in Egypt, which leads many FSA commanders to also describe him as an opportunist. The political activity level and influence of the RCS is very limited.
The Free Syrian Army. (FSA)
The Free Syrian Army (FSA) was constituted by deserted officers and troops of the Syrian military during the summer of 2011. Its official commander is Colonel Rias al-Assad, but the FSA failed to establish an actual central or general command structure. The FSA initially claimed that its function was to protect peaceful protesters from the military forces of the Syrian government. In a number of well documented cases however, members of the FSA attacked peaceful protesters, blaming the shooting on the regular Syrian military. Some of these crimes have been committed in collusion with journalists from Al-Jazeera and led to the expulsions of Al-Jazeera journalists from Syria.
Although the FSA remained unsuccessful in recruiting a significant number of deserters from the Syrian military forces, it succeeded in recruiting a large number of Syrian, Turkish, Egyptian and Qatari Muslim Brothers. By early June 2012, prior to the two major campaigns to secure Aleppo, the FSA had no more than 3.000 Syrian core members, but it had been significantly reinforced by members of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group and major contingents of other foreign fighters. Its total strength in early June 2012 was estimated at approximately 70.000 troops plus a yet unknown number of Turkish, US American, British, Qatari and Saudi Special Forces.
Recruitment of foreign fighters was and is still organized through refugee camps in Turkey. The Workers´Party of Turkey has filed criminal charges against the AKP government of R. Tayyip Erdogan. 3. Prior to June the Military Intelligence Service of Turkey was also reported to have an intelligence room and recruitment office on Mekkha Street in the city of Amman, Jordan.
Failure to establish a general command structure resulted in the establishment of regional warlords who fought for the control of smaller villages or districts of major cities like Aleppo, Idlib, Homs and villages at the outskirts of Damascus. The failure to establish a general command and a high number of untrained and undisciplined volunteers are most likely the primary causes for many of the massacres, pillaging, summary executions that have been documented since the establishment of the FSA. The influx of Salafist fighters from the Al-Qaeda associated Libyan Islamic Fighting Group has most likely aggravated the uncontrolled violence. Furthermore, the fact that many leading commanders of the FSA disputed the political role of the National Council of Syria, calling them opportunists, and the fact that the Free Syrian Army was struggling with local warlords political disputes weakened the political and military credibility and strength of both the NCS and the FSA.
The Defeat of the Free Syrian Army in June and July.
In June and July two major military campaigns of the FSA failed to emulate the strategy that had been successfully applied in Libya. To secure Aleppo as a military stronghold and seat of a transitional government which could quasi legitimately call on allied nations to assist with the implementation of a “No-Fly-Zone” or a military intervention.
Within this context it is noteworthy that the U.S. Permanent Representative to NATO, Ivo H. Daalder, and NATO`s Supreme Allied Commander Europe and Commander of the U.S. European Command James G. Stavridis; published an article in the March-April issue of Foreign Affairs, in which they called NATO´s Operation Unified Protector in Libya in 2011 a “teachable moment and a model for future interventions“.5 The article and its consequences with regards to modern NATO military doctrine, international law and Syria have been analyzed in a previous article by the author. The NATO model for future interventions failed in Syria with the failure of the FSA to secure Aleppo as the seat for a transitional government.
Lack of coordination in the campaign against Aleppo has devastating consequences for the FSA who suffered significant and in fact decisive losses in Aleppo, after which the Syrian military could begin focusing on fighting down the isolated warlords in Homs, Idlib, and at the outskirts of Damascus. After the defeat and heavy casualties many Syrian as well as foreign volunteers gave up the fight. In fact manywere seeking to realign themselves with the Syrian government after witnessing the massive war crimes and human rights abuses that had been committed by FSA fighters and in particular by the foreign reinforcements.
The FSA was heavily criticized by human rights organizations. Even Human Rights Watch, which is widely criticized for selective monitoring and reporting of war crimes and human rights abuses in Libya and Syria has sharply criticized the FSA.
The Salafist – Wahabist Fighters in Syria
After the defeat of the FSA in June – July 2012 the military offensive to topple the government de jure of Syria would have stagnated, and most likely a peaceful resolution to the conflict would have been achieved, had it not been for a significant influx of fighters from a cohort of predominantly Saudi Arabia and Qatar backed Salafist or Wahabist organizations. Many of these organizations have direct or indirect ties to both Al-Qaeda and the Afghani and Pakistani Taliban. Details about many of these organization’s contributions to the conflict are detailed in the report, Tentative Jihad: Syria’s Fundamentalist Opposition, which was issued by the International Crisis Group on 12. October 2012.
What the report of the International Crisis Group, which is funded by the self-proclaimed philanthropist, philosopher and multi billionaire George Soros fails to elicit is, that the majority of the funding, training and arming of these groups is provided by Saudi Arabia.
Already in September 2011 the article Syria NATO and the Modified Chechnyan Model revealed that Russian and Syrian intelligence services had intercepted communications that indicated that Al Qaeda´s Omar Brigade, which is financed by Saudi Arabia and under the supervision of the Saudi Ministry of the Interior had been deployed to Syria.
Wahabi, or Salafi organizations represent a convergence of German Word War II Fascism and a totalitarian and radical interpretation of Islam under the protectorate of the Royal Family of Saudi Arabia.
While Salafist extremists have been present and active since the onset of the conflict, the significant influx after July 2012 has also significantly changed the military and political landscape. The fact that the FSA never had established a coherent command structure into which the influx of Jihadis could be integrated worsened the incoherence of the armed opposition. The fact of the matter is that the armed opposition has degenerated into a cohort of small units, many of which claim their particular turf as liberated Caliphate. Many of them are laying claim on political power in their micro enclaves or in post-subversion Syria.
The subsequent and drastic increase in summary executions, beheadings, and anarchy under the banner of a perverted form of Sharia has in fact been extremely counter productive for the opposition at large.
Fearing that their country is being overrun by Salafist extremists, imported from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, as well as France, the UK, and other European countries, many Syrians are giving up the armed struggle. Others are realigning themselves with the Syrian military and the government de jure of the Syrian Arab Republic. On 28 September the prominent FSA commander Captain Khaled Abdel Rahman al-Zamel, accompanied by ten other FSA officers, took part in a conference of the National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change, NCC, which is seeking a Syrian solution to the crisis and which is tolerant of the Baath Party and President al-Assad.
The article Washington´s Salafist Quagmire in Syria describes how the development is not only weakening the military opposition and making it increasingly difficult to unite a credible, functional and presentable political opposition, it is also developing into a public relations problem for the the US Administration and other proponents of regime change.
The Kurdish Minorities in Syria.
Both the Turkish Kurds represented by the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) and the PKK affiliated Syrian Democratic Union Party, which has a strong political influence in the predominantly ethnic Kurdish regions of Syria are determined to prevent the spreading of the bloodshed and massacres committed by the FSA and Salafist extremists to the Kurdish areas. The Democratic Union Party and the PKK yield a sufficiently strong influence to resist the FSA and the affiliated Salafist militia. As in other parts of Syria there are small pockets of FSA and Salafist fighters in the Kurdish regions, and there are incidents related to arms and troops trafficking via the Syrian border. However, the Kurdish Fractions and the Syrian military are keeping the region relatively calm.
Some western media, first and foremost the government controlled TV stations, are making unsubstantiated claims that the Kurdish populations and the parties are eager to cooperate with the subversion and that they are looking forward to Kurdish liberation after the fall of the Damascus government. These reports have to be assessed as predominantly based on propaganda rather than actuality. Both appeals by the Turkish government and the FSA, most prominently by FSA Commander Mustafa al-Sheikh to Kurdish Parties and Fractions to join the insurgency have failed.
In June 2011, at the onset of the FSA campaign for Aleppo, a senior member of the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Syria, Nuri Brimo, expressed that the Kurdish National Council, KNC, has decided not to get involved in the insurgency against the Syrian government and military and that the council has decided to keep the Kurdish areas peaceful.
Nuri Brimo said, that the KNC does not want events like the massacres in Daraa and Homs to be repeated in predominantly ethnically Kurdish cities. Brimo added that one day things may get out of control, but so far security and calm have prevailed.
At the beginning of June 2011 the Kurdish areas witnessed some violence between the Kurdish National Council and the PYD. The clashes ceased after an agreement between the KNC and PYD was signed on 11 June. The clashes between the PYD and the KNC occurred due to insecurity about a possible security gap that could arise if the attempted subversion should succeed in defeating the Syrian Military.
Both the KNC and the PYD have recognized that their primary strategic partner for security is the Syrian government, the Syrian military and thereafter other Kurdish factions. 10
Contrary to the Kurdish population of Turkey which is suffering from considerable oppression, the Syrian Kurdish minority enjoys considerable rights and privileges. The constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic enshrines considerable rights and privileges for ethnic and religious minorities. It also guarantees equal rights an opportunity to women. The Kurds of Syria are acutely aware of the fact that it is very unlikely that any new Syrian government that has come to power with the political and military support of a Turkish government, and in particular the AKP led government of P.M. Erdogan is likely not to improve the situation.
Beside that, neither the NCS, the FSA, or the Salafist mercenaries have any political program that would guarantee the Kurdish minority of Syria the same rights and privileges as they already have, and even if any of these opposition groups had a program that guaranteed the rights of the Kurdish minority, none of them have either the military nor the political credibility to make them a suitable and reliable partner for the Kurds of Syria.
The National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change (NCC)
The National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change, NCC, is a pro-reform organization that is based in Damascus. It is a broad popular coalition of Pan-Arabists, Nationalists, Kurdish Parties and Organizations, Syrian Socialists, Internationalist Socialists, Marxist Organizations, Peace Movements, Human Rights Organizations, Religious NGOs and other organizations. It is by far the largest and most inclusive pro-reform organization. Although it is by far the largest and most representative pro-reform organization, its initiatives have been largely ignored by Western and Gulf Arab mainstream politicians and media.
Opposite to all of the foreign-backed opposition the NCC and all of its constituent parties and organizations reject unsolicited foreign interference into the internal affairs of the Syrian Arab Republic. The NCC opposes any foreign military intervention and vehemently opposes the foreign backed insurgency on the grounds of international law and on the grounds that it is counterproductive to the ongoing reform process in Syria. The NCC perceives the militant, foreign backed insurgency in Syria as the main obstacle to genuine and comprehensive reforms in Syria.
The NCC criticizes the economic sanctions against Syria as misguided. Economic sanctions, so the NCC, are predominantly inflicting suffering and harm on the general population. The NCC perceives the diplomatic sanctions against Syria as counterproductive to genuine dialog and conflict resolution. The NCC recognizes the Syrian Arab Baath Party as partner toward genuine and comprehensive national reforms as well as a political competition and partner within a democratic discourse.
The NCC is regularly organizing conferences which rather than focusing on the discourse of a particular party organize the necessary systemic, institutional and cultural instruments that are necessary for a genuine democratic discourse.
Members of the National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change are being systematically targeted by the Free Syrian Army and Salafist terrorist organizations in an attempt to disrupt the political dialog and reform process.
The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SNP).
The Syrian Social Nationalist Party , SNP, was constituted in 1932 in Beirut as a party for national independence from French colonialism and for social justice. It is working on a socialist democratic platform comparable to that of the Social Democratic Parties in Germany and Denmark, or the British Labour Party. The program of the SNP endorses Syrian national sovereignty and independence within the framework of a political and economic Pan-Arabic union.
The SNP opposes unsolicited foreign intervention into the domestic political affairs of the Syrian Arab Republic. It sharply criticizes foreign political and material support of insurgents on the grounds of international law, and on the grounds that the foreign backed subversion and the wave of terrorism it has brought to Syria is counter-productive to genuine political, economic and social reforms.
The SNP has taken part in the 2012 elections and it is represented in the Syrian Parliament and part of the current coalition government that is constituted by The Syrian Socialist Arab Baath Party, The Syrian Social Nationalist Party, and The Peoples Will Party. After the 2012 elections the prominent SNP member Dr. Ali Haidar became Minister of State for National Reconciliation Affairs of the government of President Bashar Al-Assad.
As well as members of all other reformist movements and parties who reject foreign intervention and andarmed subversion, members of the SNP are being systematically targeted and assassinated by the FSA and Salafist terrorist organizations.
The Peoples Will Party (PWP).
The Peoples Will Party has a social and liberal democratic platform. It has taken part in the 2012 elections and is represented in the Syrian Parliament. After the elections the prominent PWP member Dr. Qadri Jamil became the Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs and the Minister of Internal Trade and Consumer Protection. Dr. Jamil is also the chairman of the Popular Front for Change and Liberation, which is part of the largest pro-reform organization, the National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change, NCC.
Also the PWP rejects unsolicited foreign political and military interference into the internal affairs of the Syrian Arab Republic on the ground of international law and because of their adverse effect on the ongoing political, legal and social reforms in Syria.
The Syrian Socialist Arab Baath Party ( Baath Party).
The Syrian Socialist Arab Baath Party constitutes itself on the basis of Pan-Arabic Socialism, that is, governance based on secular, socialist principles, with the endorsement of religious freedom and protection of religious and ethnic minorities. The Baath Party is the greatest Syrian Party. Although it has been criticized for holding on to governance under emergency laws too long, thus stalling a much wanted and much needed development of political competition and reforms, both the Party and President Al-Assad enjoy very high approval ratings.
In early 2012 the Baath Party succeeded in spite of the ongoing subversion to implement comprehensive political reforms. Four political parties have been approved, registered. Elections have been held. The elections were free, open, fair and in spite of the threat of terrorism peaceful.
The Baath Party is currently forming a coalition government with the participation of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party and the Peoples Will Party. In early 2012 the pre-2012 elections government has drafted a new Syrian constitution that has been approved by 89 % in a referendum. In spite of the ongoing violence and threats against polling stations, over 69 % of the electorate voted in the referendum,
The Syrian Arab Baath Party has practiced considerable self-critique, most prominently from the side of President Al-Assad. Primarily this self-critique is based on having been too slow to implement political reforms and for holding on to governance under emergency laws for too long.
The Baath Party encourages all peaceful and constructive political opposition and national reconciliation. It rejects any unsolicited political and military intervention on the grounds of international law and on the grounds that they are counter-productive to genuine political, legal and social reforms.
Other Parties and Organizations.
Since the onset of the Arab Spring in Syria in March 2011, the Syrian government has implemented the dual policy of maintaining security and fighting the armed subversion, while embracing and promoting an inclusive, peaceful political discourse. Several amnesties for citizens who had taken up arms and who had not been directly involved in outright murder and crimes against humanity, while encouraging the establishment of new political parties and organizations have contributed to the success of this policy.
Other organizations which are not explicitly accounted for in this analysis include a Youth Party, The Communist Party of Syria, and a cohort of smaller parties and grassroots organizations which have sprung up in Syria since 2011. Many of these parties and organizations are taking part in the work and conferences of the National Coordinating Committe for Democratic Change, NCC. Provided that the armed subversion can be contained, there is today a solid potential for genuine reform and a genuine democratic discourse in Syria.
Mystery about Germany´s Gold in the US Solved
Nobody wants to admit it openly. The German Gold Reserves in the United States are gone, used for financing the United States war chest and bet for “Global Full Spectrum Dominance”. So why is even the German Federal Bank trying to avoid further speculation by referring to a non-existent “full transparency” ? The answer is quite simple. Nobody wants the current backwardation of the gold market to turn into a permanent backwardation of the gold market. The consequence would be the inevitable collapse of global trade and civilization as we know it.
nsnbc international report from April 2013 “in the money” – “to take to the bank”. In April 2013, nsnbc international published a report by nsnbc contributor, Prof. Long Xinming, revealing that the German government had asked to visit the vaults of the US Federal Reserve to determine the actual existence of the German gold reserves.
Germany has deposited about half of its gold reserves in the USA. The FED refused to permit Germany to examine its own gold, stating “security” and “no room for visitors” as reasons. Nothing else.
When Germany finally was “permitted” an audit, the auditors were admitted into the vault´s anté chamber where 5 or 6 gold bars were shown to them as “representative for Germany´s holdings”.
The German auditors apparently returned a second time, when the FED granted them permission to “look into” 1 of 9 rooms without allowing them to enter or touch the gold, before the auditors were sent back home to Germany. The report on nsnbc prompted worldwide discussions.
In July 2013, the US American hedge-fund manager William Kaye created a stir when he picked-up the ball, stating:
” Germany won´t ever see its gold again…… Central Banks, such as the FED, where most of the reserves had been deposited, had lent the gold to U.S. Banks such as Goldman Sachs and JP Morgan.
The gold has been used in the market to lower the gold price and the FED has received securities in exchange…. Germany won´t ever see that gold again, because it is safely kept in my accounts and the accounts of our investors”.
William Kaye, who previously has been working for Goldman Sachs is by no means a “nobody” on the global markets, and the fact that his statement caused a stir was less surprising than the surprise non-insiders got when they heard the news about Germany´s gold. In fact, nsnbc´s initial report was doubted by many but was, as it turned out right “in the money”, one could, so to speak, take our report to the bank.
German Federal Bank. A Real Embarrassment and Non-Existent Transparency. Not surprisingly either, is the fact that the situation became an embarrassment for the German Federal Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank (DB).
A DB speaker said, that the Deutsche Bundesbank told the German financial publication “Deutsche Wirtschafts Nachrichten” (German Market News), that the DB does not want to comment on the statement and referred to the full transparency which it had provided about the German gold reserves in January 2013. “The situation” said the DB spokesperson, “has remained unchanged since then”. The statement however, was only 50 % true. The true 50 % of the statement is, that the Deutsche Bundesbank does not want to comment.
The untrue 50 % is the statement about the purported full transparency which the DB has provided in January 2013. While it is understandable that it is an embarrassment that one´s purported “ally“, whom many Germans consider more of a political, economical, cultural and not to forget military occupier rather than an ally, has the audacity to put Germany´s auditors off with “no place for visitors” and shows them 1 of 9 chambers, “but don´t enter and touch” after protests from Berlin, is understandable.
After all, no German functionary would ever be allowed to, and no German politician in his right mind would ever dare to say, that “Germany still has not regained its full sovereignty”without risking the carrier – or more.
But talking about full transparency is equivalent to literally ask for trouble from one´s compatriots.
The demand that Germany repatriate its physical gold reserves is becoming increasingly outspoken, and not only among German patriots and conservatives like Member of Parliament for the Christian Social Union, CSU, Peter Gauweiler.
After all, it can hardly have escaped the DB spokesperson and German as well as international observers, that Germany´s Federal Accounting Office has issued a statement in late 2012, in which it criticized the Deutsche Bundesbank because it had not ever had any of its staff to personally audit the German gold reserves abroad. That is, “Not Ever”.
No Audit of German Reserves “Ever”. Deutsche Wirtschafts Nachrichten (German Market News) also asked the DB spokesperson whether any of the German Federal Bank´s officials has ever taken to Paris or the USA to personally audit the German gold reserves. The DB spokesperson replied, or rather tried to avoid answering the question, saying:
“The Deutsche Bundesbank has, with regard to the storage, appropriate storage and deposit contracts with those Central Banks with whom the gold is being deposited”.
He then added, that these contracts, however, were subject to confidentiality, and by the way, he added,
“the Chair for Cash, Settlements and Payment Systems of the Deutsche Bundesbank, Carl-Ludwig Thiele had said in January that he had been there”.
Given this answer, the journalist probably knew that his job would be entering the “Danger Zone” if he would have asked:
” Was there ? Where ? In France ? In New York ? Did Herr Carl-Ludwig Thiele inspect the gold and how much was there ? Is it documented anywhere ? Can I see a copy ? I mean, we are speaking about full transparency right ? ”
An ode to independent media! So, the poor German journalist could keep his job, the Bundesbank spokesperson was proud about his evasive PR skills and that he could keep his job, and we remain in the dark. Everybody is happy. Right ? Business as usual !
The effect of the Deutsche Bundesbank´s complicity in covering-up the obvious theft of Germany´s gold reserves by Germany´s occupying ally USA, the United States blatant arrogance in dealing with his “Trans-Atlantic Partners in Germany” however is beginning to backfire.
How much longer the scandal can be contained is becoming increasingly questionable, and Germans begin to organize themselves to demand the repatriation of the country´s gold reserves.
A group of renown Germans, including the member of the European Taxpayers Association, Rolf Baron von Hohenhau, Peter Boehringer of the German Precious Metals Society, M.P. Frank Scäffler, Author and former IBM Germany CEO, Prof. Hans O. Henkel, Ralf Flier, the Editor in Chief of Smart Investor Magazine, and numerous others have organized themselves in the Association “Repatriate Our Gold” (Holt unser Gold Heim)
The Co-Initiator of the Initiative, Peter Boehringer, states that he considers it absolutely plausible, that the German gold reserves no longer exist within the USA in terms of physical gold bars. Moreover, Boehringer states, that one can strongly suspect it. Boehringer concludes:
“We do believe the Deutsche Bundesbank in its statements, but we do not believe that the Bundesbank can believe what its contractual partners say. The Deutsche Bundesbank simply cannot be sure, that the gold reserves still are present at the FED in the form of gold bars” .
“The Bundesbank does not even officially claim this, or cannot prove the physical presence according to appropriate principles of accounting. The Bundesbank has officially informed us, that the depots and Partner Central Banks have a marvelous integrity, and that the doubts, which we have forwarded in the form of questions, are unsubstantiated”.
He then, correctly remarks the fact which the Bundesbank obviously attempts to omit, which is, that the FED has not performed any official audit of its gold holdings since 1953, and the fact that the Americans they don´t even trust the FED. Ask any US citizen in any major city in the USA and ask: “Can the FED be trusted?”. If you can ask the question with a straight face, people will either believe that you are retarded or that you are part of a new “Candid Camera show”.
Repatriate Our Gold therefore demands, that the Deutsche Bundesbank publishes all the lists with the gold bar numbers of gold bars, which are deposited abroad as well as in Germany.
The question one may ask is, whether the publication of the gold bar numbers would add any credibility to the claims that the gold is physically present, and the ultimate proof can only be given by a full inspection, rather than a dog and pony show, in which German auditors at the fed are shown one out of nine vaults “but don´t enter and don´t touch”. Repatriate Our Gold is therefore still insisting on a full, physical audit of the gold.
Repatriate Our Gold warns, that the repatriation of the German gold reserves from the USA and France by 2020, as the Bundesbank states it would, is far from sufficient. Boehringer states, that the Bundesbank seem to be betting on time because, as he states:
“If German gold reserves really have been used as collateral, one will first have to buy them back”.
And here, Boehringer is touching the most touchy of issues. It is correct, that the FED would first have to buy the gold before it could deliver, but the trouble is, that the gold-market has been in backwardation since early July 2013. To buy gold requires that there is someone who is able and willing to sell gold, and with the market being in backwardation that is impossible.
According to a nsnbc international report with World Bank whistleblower Karen Hudes, we may be facing a global currency war as corruption at the World Bank unsettles the gold market. Karen Hudes has worked 20 years as legal counsel at the World Bank´s legal department. Hudes was sacked in retaliation after she blew the whistle and reported massive corruption in the Bretton Woods institutions.
Hudes has since been reinstated, but the US administration continues its retaliation, and is, as a stakeholder analysis shows, under arrest of a conglomerate or megabank, has Hudes describes it, which prevents that the USA begins to comply with international accounting standards.
Already in May, Hudes warned that the consequence of failure to address the problems would be a permanent backwardation of the gold market and a global currency war that would, one started, grind world trade to a standstill. Moreover, Hudes states:
“A stakeholder analysis derived from accurate game theory modeling shows a clear fork in the road for the United States: rule of law and the transatlantic alliance or corruption and the ascendency of China.”
It may very well be that the United States and Germany, the FED and the Deutsche Bundesbank perceive it as being in their shared interest to cover-up the fact that Germany´s gold is gone, that:
” Germany won´t ever see its gold again…… Central Banks, such as the FED, where most of the reserves had been deposited, had lent the gold to U.S. Banks such as Goldman Sachs and JP Morgan. The gold has been used in the market to lower the gold price and the FED has received securities in exchange…. Germany won´t ever see that gold again, because it is safely kept in my accounts and the accounts of our investors”.
as William Kaye said it. The shared interest would in that case be the attempt to prevent the permanent backwardation, the subsequent currency war and the grinding of world trade to a hold. The problem for both the FED and the Bundesbank is, that the “Gini has left the bottle”, the truth is out and no complicity of silence will make it return into the bottle on its own volition. More simplified: “How to get the paste back into the tube?”.
When push comes to shove we will see that the German gold and the gold of numerous other countries who deposited their gold in the USA after WW II has been used to line the pockets of the US military industrial complex and has financed the US bet for global, full-spectrum dominance. Not surprisingly, many, especially older Germans come to think “Dresden and Pforzheim” when they are confronted with that fact.
French Africa Policy Damages African and European Economies.
Since the independence of the former French colonies in western Africa they are in spite of the richness of their natural resources and the productivity of their populations still catastrophically under-developed.
In 2007 the French and European economies began deteriorating into a devastating recession. France seems to be like a man who is standing at the edge of a cliff, transfixed by the thought of falling into the abyss. In fear of losing the lucrative racket of controlling the western African economies he forgets that there is Terra firma and a possibility for both French, European and African prosperity behind him. Africans and leading European politicians expected that the administration of President Hollande would bring much-needed change with respect to French control over the economies of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, the Republic of Congo, Senegal and Togo. However, also Hollande´s administration seems to be so transfixed by the prospect of falling into the abyss that it does not fathom the possibility of taking one step back.
Will France remain transfixed in fear and drag western Africa and Europe with it when it falls or does it dare to loosen up its grip on control over the good old CFA racket in its former colonies and discover the true potential and value of the African markets. As painful as it may be, the primary prerequisite for a progressive development and prosperity is the truth about the current state of affairs.
The root causes for the lacking development of the western African economies are closely related to the fact that France, contrary to other former colonial powers, managed to install its commissars at the heart of its former colonies economic and monetary system and that it still maintains almost unchallenged control over them. The system was created by German National Socialists during the 1930s and 40s. It was used to usurp France and other German occupied nations.
The Genesis of the CFA-System in Nazi Germany and the German Occupation of France.
On 9 Maj 1941 Hemmen, the German Ambassador to France declared that he had signed a treaty with the French Admiral Darlan. The treaty would place German commissars within the French National Bank´s departments for foreign currencies and international commerce.(1) The treaty was negotiated under the auspices of German Minister of Finance Herman Göring, whose father, Heinrich Ernst Göring has been the German Governor of German West Africa, todays Namibia, from 1885 to 1890. Herman Göring was among other notorious for his plundering the occupied nations’ economies through operations accounts and for his special interest in treasures and art from the German occupied areas.
At the end of world war two and the occupation of France, the French President Charles de Gaulle created the CFA Franc as a currency for the western African colonies. De Gaulle created a monetary union whose functions of control were based on the model Germany had used to usurp German occupied France.
Even though the colonies have since gained independence, the system of almost absolute control over their economies by the installment of commissars with the Central Banks of the West African Monetary and Economic Unions, the B.E.A.C., the B.C.C., and the B.C.E.A.O. persists.
Modo-Colonialism, the Veto Right by French Commissars over African Economies.
Together, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Niger, the Republic of Congo, Senegal and Togo, establish the Monetary and Economic Union of West Africa (U.M.E.O.A. / UMEAO. Their currency, the CFA-Franc is printed under supervision of the French National Bank in Charmaliéres, France. The Council of Presidents of the fifteen U.M.E.O.A. member states constitutes the highest authority of the union. Decisions of the Presidential Council are made unanimously. The Ministerial Council of the U.M.E.O.A. defines the monetary and credit policy of the union and it is responsible for the economic development of the region. According to the constitutions of all fifteen member states the creation of their currency, the regulation of its value as well as the regulation of parities and modalities is the exclusive privilege of the nation and its people and decisions about it are made by the parliament.
The placement of French commissars within the heart of the nations and the union`s banking system however, creates an obvious dichotomy between the apparent sovereignty of the union, its constituents, and direct control from the previous colonial power.
Three of the thirteen of the Directors of the B.E.A.C. are French and four of the eight Directors of the B.C.C. are French. The Board of Directors of the B.C.E.A.O. is constituted by sixteen Directors; two from each country plus two additional Directors from France who take part in the management of the bank under the same conditions and with the same privileges as the other Directors. The number and placement of the commissars gives them a Veto right at the board of each of the Central Banks. No decision can be made without their approval and France can enforce its policy by threatening to deadlock the economies unless decisions are made in compliance with French suggestions.
The French Veto right also extends to the nomination of the Governor of the B.E.A.C.. The Governor is elected with the unanimous vote of the Board of Directors, on suggestion of the government of Gabon, and after the approval of the other member states as well as France.(2)
The Central Bank does not only have the privilege to create the currency. It also has the privilege to grant credit for the current accounts of the national treasuries at its discount rate. The Board of Directors is making the decisions about the temporalities and about the total amount that is granted for financing the economies of each of the member states.
Feeding France, Bleeding Africa – Current Accounts and the System of Usurpation.
While the primary instrument of control is the installment of French commissars, the primary instrument for usurping the western African economies is their current accounts. The member states agree to deposit their foreign currency reserves in a shared reserve fond.
The foreign currency reserves are subject to deposition in an operations account at the French National Bank. Between 1945 and 1973 one hundred per cent of the foreign currency reserves had to be deposited in the operations account, in 1973 it was reduced to sixty-five, and on 27. September 2005 to fifty percent. (3) Another fifteen percent is kept in a guaranty fund.
In other words sixty-five per cent of all foreign currency reserves of the fifteen nations and all revenue generated outside of the unions territory is kept at the French National Bank. On 3 Mai 2010 the website of Jeune Afrique quotes the former French Minister of Finance and Commerce, Christine Lagarde: “The Bank of the States of Central Africa, for instance, places an almost 90 per cent of their reserves in the French National Bank”. (4)
In 1960 Jean Boissonat, a member of the currency committee of the French National Bank wrote: “Almost all decisions were made in France .. The Franc Zone allowed France to deliver certain natural resources to itself without having to spend any foreign reserves. It was estimated that this represented two hundred and fifty million US-Dollar savings in terms of foreign reserves per year …” Boissonat continues by stating that approximately half a million Frenchmen in Paris receive their means of survival from the Franc Zone.(5)
The French socialist Jean-Noël Jeanny wrote in 1963 that: “all that the African nations achieve by increasing their export is the generation of more foreign currency reserves for France”.(6) He could as well have added “and the creation of debt for themselves”. Beside profiting on African foreign currency reserves which are returned to the West African nations in the form of debt, France is also profiting from African gold.
The gold reserves of the fifteen nations are kept in France, supposedly to guaranty for the value of the CFR Franc. In 2001 the West-African gold reserves at the French National Bank had an estimated value of 206,528 billion CFR Franc. In an interview for Le Liberation in 1996 the late President of Gabon, Omar Bongo said: “We are in the Franc Zone. Our operations accounts are managed by the French National Bank in Paris. Who profits from the interests that our money generates ? France.” (7)
France is indebting and enslaving Africans by means of Africa’s own wealth; for example: 12.0000 billion invested at three per cent creates 360 billion in interests which France grants as credits to Africa at an interest rate of five to six per cent or more. The allegory of “Bleeding Africa and Feeding France” is no exaggeration, not alarmist, and not revolutionary. It it is a sobering fact of French modo-colonialism and the cost in terms of under-development and human suffering is staggering. The current accounts and the French usurpation are a humanitarian disaster that is induced by France and financed by those who are suffering from it.
Coups, Crisis and French Finance-Nazism in Africa.
In 1996 France devalued the CFR Franc in spite of the protest of most western African nations. Former French Prime Minister Eduard Balladour justified the French dictated devaluation of the CFR Franc because “ it was considered to be the best possibility for aiding the development of the western African countries” (8), even though another statement by Balladoure indicates that he was aware of that the regulation of a currency is a matter of national sovereignty(9).
The late President of Togo, Etienne Gnassingbé said about the devaluation: “One uses to say that violence overrules justice. I was not the only one who issued the warning….. But France has decided otherwise. The African voices don´t count for much in this affair”.(10)
The words of the late Etienne Gnassingbé indicate that the Bleeding of Africa can be taken literally. According to the statutes of the monetary and economic union every member state is free to leave it. So much to theory. In practice, France has left a trail of post-modern coup d´etats, violence, and murder in those nations who tried to get out from under what many West-Africans perceive as French Finance-Nazism in Africa.
In January 1963 the President of Togo, the late Sylvanus Olympio was murdered three days before the issuing of a new currency.
On 19. November 1968 the late President of Mali Modibo Kéita was ousted in a coup and arrested. In 1977 Modibo Kéita died in prison. Kéita was poisoned.
On 27. January 1996 the President of Mali was ousted in a military coup d´etat.
On 15. March 2003 the late President of the Central African Republic Angè Félix Patassé was ousted by the “rebel leader” Francois Bozizé. In all cases the monetary union and France have played a role.
Ivory Coast´s President Laurent Gbagbo, France, the ICC and Modo-Colonialism.
When Laurent Gbagbo became the President of Ivory Coast one of his first official initiatives was the erection of a concrete wall in the tunnel that connects the French Embassy with the Presidential Residence. Gbagbo wanted Ivory Coast to abandon the CFA and institute a new regional and if possible a Pan-African, gold-backed currency. The initiative toward the establishment of a gold-backed Pan-African currency enjoyed the sympathy of many African nations and enjoyed unequivocal support from Libya, which until the so-called Arab Spring in 2011 was the richest and most developed of all African nations.
As if it was a conditioned reflex, France seemed transfixed by is fear of falling into the abyss, of losing the CFR racket that has kept the French economy afloat since it was conceived by de Gaulle in 1945. Rather than seeing a potential, France was biding its time until an opportunity for a post-modern coup d´etat. The 2010 Presidential elections in Ivory Coast. France sided with Alessanne Outtara. Libyan intelligence reports from 2009 and 2010 indicated that the French Intelligence Service D.G.S.E. had begun infiltrating, financing and arming a group of “rebels” in the northern region of Ivory Coast.
The outcome of the Presidential election was apparently very close. The electoral commission declared Alessanne Outtara the winner but the election result was disputed by Laurent Gbagbo.
There had been registered serious irregularities. In one particular village with a population of approximately ten thousand, Alessanne Outtara seemed to have received almost one hundred thousand votes.
Western mainstream media began building a narrative: The electoral commission had declared Outtara to be the winner. The despotic Laurent Gbagbo refused to hand over the reins of power to the winner of the elections. Gbagbo is cracking down on peaceful protesters. Gbagbo is cornered in his bunker…
What western media generally failed to report, underreported, or conveyed in a distorted and strongly biased fashion was that: Laurent Gabgbo and his party had brought the case to the Supreme Court; that the Supreme Court of Ivory Coast had recounted the votes; that the Supreme Court had taken notice of election fraud in favor of Outtara; and that the Supreme Court of Ivory Coast had declared Laurent Gbagbo to be the winner of the elections and the rightfully elected President of Ivory Coast. That French backed guerrilla began attacking predominantly pro-Gbagbo villages, committing massacres, and that French backed “rebels” were attacking the Presidential Residence.
What was emphatically reported in French and western media like the BBC was that “security forces” clamped down on peaceful protesters, and that “Ouattara´s Army” is cornering “Gbagbo in his bunker”.(11)
Nobody seemed to ask the important question. Where in the world had Outtara, who just claimed to have won the elections gotten an “army” from ?
It is symptomatic for the high prevalence of racism and condescending modo-colonialist reasoning among European populations that only very few commentators and analysts said:
“But the electoral commission is not the one who has the competence to approve of election results, it is the Supreme Court”.
A comparison can illustrate the point: When George W. Bush and Al Gore had the closest of all elections that have been held in the United States of America; who certified the election ? The Supreme Court, of course. (12)
Many Americans felt utterly disenfranchised but the population respected the Supreme Court. Could anyone have even thought about the remote possibility of “Al Gore´s Army cornering Bush in his Bunker” of “Gore neglecting the Supreme Court because the electoral commission had pronounced him to be the winner ?” And where in the world would Al Gore have gotten his army from Anyways ? And where did Alessanne Outtara get his army from ?
The capture of Laurent Gbagbo cost the lives of approximately 1.600 young Ivorian soldiers. Young patriots who were willing to defend the President of Ivory Coast from the onslaught of a French-backed post-modern coup d´etat. The capture an arrest of President Laurent Gbagbo was possible only after French special forces violated international law by blasting a hole into the wall which Laurent Gbagbo had erected inside the tunnel that connects the French embassy with the Presidential residence.
The sealed boxes with the ballots from the 2010 elections are kept at the United Nations. So far U.N. Secretary General Ban Kyi-moon has failed to order an independent re-count of the ballots. The fact that the United Nations has so far failed to re-count the ballots to determine the legitimacy of either Laurent Gbagbo´s or Alessanne Outtara´s claim for the Ivorian Presidency, combined with the selective and one-sided prosecution of Laurent Gbagbo at the ICC and of military officers who were loyal to him in 2010 is symptomatic for grave systemic and procedural problems at the United Nations and the International Criminal Court at The Haag. The case against Laurent Gbagbo ought to have been dismissed on the basis of selective prosecution from the very start. His prosecution at the ICC after French involvement in the aggravation of post-election violence in Ivory Coast and the arrest with the aid of French special forces is a blatant example for the abuse of the ICC as an instrument of modo-colonialist control. The most recent selectively prosecuted case is that against General Dogbo Ble in Ivory Coast. Also here western media are de-facto sentencing a political opponent of modo-colonialism before he is even heard in court.(13)
A recent analysis of the systemic and political problems with the ICC, the United Nations, the Rome Statute and the explosion of international law at its very root by Dr. Hans Köchler (14) reads as if it was written to elicit the injustice that is being perpetrated against Laurent Gbagbo and the people of Ivory Coast.
Missed Chances for African and European Economies and the Urgency of Change.
A growing number of African and European leaders are becoming impatient about the paralysis of France. African leaders are impatient because the obvious usurpation of their nations is unbearable for the African economies and their populations. European leaders are mostly impatient because France prevents a European adaptation to the last decades geopolitical changes in Africa and because the crisis of the Euro requires initiative rather than stagnation. Failure to integrate the western African economies into the economic sphere of Europe is bound to have devastating long term consequences for both Africa and Europe.
China has recognized the colossal market potential of a developing African middle class. The French and Trans-Atlantic model of usurpation and subjugation is not only criminal and unethical, it is also uncompetitive.
Recent statements made by the French political heavyweight Jacques Chiraq, who said that France does not have to be a benefactor, it must merely stop usurping Africa, are indicating a potential for change. Chiraq stated that failure to change French-African relations can have catastrophic consequences. 2012 Presidential candidate Jean Luc Mélenon stated that the CFA represents the severe mistake not to tie the western African economies to the economies of the European Union. Mélenon demanded that France abandons its veto right at the Boards of the African Central Banks.
The European Council stated that France is blocking for any project of the European Central Bank that attempts to change the nature or the bearing of the French involvement in the western African Central Banks. The French approach to managing French-African relations is not only bleeding Africa. It is increasingly bleeding both the French and European economies who are missing out on the market potential of an emerging African middle class.
Some political analysts have suggested the establishment of an African-European Peace and Reconciliation Commission that is dealing with the crimes of the past, the building of trust, the review of highly politicized cases at the International Criminal Court, such as the prosecution of Ivoryan President Laurent Gbagbo to ease a transition toward new African-European relations.
The question for this and the coming year is whether France will continue standing at the edge of the cliff and fall while dragging both western Africa and Europe into the abyss together with it, or if it dares to listen to the voices of reason from Africa and its European partners, turn its gaze away from the abyss and see that there is fertile land, right behind it.
“We want to express our recognition and gratitude to Prof. Nicolas Agbohou. The historical context of the article and references about it are inspired by his speech at the Conference on African-French Relations in Paris City Hall, on 09 October 2012. – NSNBC International.”
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Turkey’s Constitutional Court Removes Minimun Legal Age Clause: More Child Brides Coming
Turkey’s Constitutional Court annulled legislation that prohibits all sexual acts with minors under the age of 15 as sexual abuse. The Court’s ruling caused outrage among rights activists and academics. A study conducted by researchers at Gaziantep University revealed that one in every three marriages in Turkey is child marriage.
The Constitutional Court ruled on the issue after a district court complained that the current law does not discriminate between age groups in cases of child sex abuse. In practice, the law makes no difference regardless whether an adult has sex with a 14-year old or a 4-year old.
The district court noted that the law does not provide legal consequences for the “consent” of victims in cases where the child victim is from 12 to 15 years of age and able to understand the meaning of the sexual act.
The District Court added that: “This creates an imbalance between legal benefits and sanctions that should be preserved in crime and punishment”. In a 7 – 6 decision the judges at the Constitutional Court agreed with the District Court and annulled the provision. The new (old) rules will come into effect on January 13, 2017.
The ruling prompted protests from women’s rights activist, child rights activists as well as from prominent academics who stress that all persons under the age of 18, under international conventions to which Turkey is a party, are children.
Nazan Moroğlu, the coordinator od the Istanbul Women’s Association and lawyer criticized the Constitutional Court for even considering the District Court’s application in the first place. Moroğlu stressed that the ruling will lead to children being vulnerable to sexual abuse and rape and will lead to more female children getting married at an early age without getting an education.
She added that the problem with child brides is already acute in Turkey, noting that there are some 3.5 million of them already and that the ruling guaranteed that their numbers will increase.
Sabit Aktas, the head of the Child Rights Center of the Ankara Bar Association, warned that many children will be affected and suffer due to the Constitutional Court’s decision. Aktas said:
“We can foresee what this decision will bring about. Those jurists who are distant from society in their ivory towers should go to courtrooms to see and hear what those children go through when describing their experiences. They should only make a ruling on this issue after doing that”.
In 2013 the Turkish AKP government under the then Prime Minister R. Tayyip Erdogan adopted the so-called 4+4+4 educational system for Turkey. A large number of Turkish experts in social sciences and education stressed that this new educational law especially encourages young Turkish girls to leave school at a very early age rather than seeking education.
Statistics from 2013 showed that 853 women were murdered in the last four years; 15% of them were killed because they wanted to divorce, 66% were killed by their ex-husbands or boyfriends. 12.5% were killed by their husbands, even though they filed a complaint and were provided with protection by the state. Violence against women in Turkey is more prevalent in the countryside where girls more often are taken out of school at an earlier age and where child marriages are more common.
In October 2013 a study conducted by researchers a Gaziantep University revealed that one in every three marriages in Turkey is a child marriage. The marriage of Turkish child brides to older men has repeatedly led to fatal tragedies. Among the most known cases in 2014 alone, is the death of two so-called child brides.
In January 2014 one 14-year-old teenage girl died from “several” allegedly self-inflicted gunshot wounds in what was declared a suicide. Police investigations suggested that the girl may have been as young as ten or eleven years when she was married away to a significantly older man. In July 2014 the 15-year-old Seter Aslan succumbed to a gunshot wound in what was declared a suicide.
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